+26 Chemical Formulas And Chemical Compounds Chapter 7 Review

PPT Chapter 7 Chemical Formulas and Chemical Compounds PowerPoint Presentation ID596672
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Chemical Formulas and Chemical Compounds Chapter 7 Review


Welcome to this comprehensive review of Chapter 7 on Chemical Formulas and Chemical Compounds. In this chapter, we will delve into the fascinating world of chemical formulas and compounds, exploring their composition, nomenclature, and properties. Whether you're a student preparing for an exam or simply interested in expanding your knowledge, this review will serve as an invaluable resource. Let's dive in!

The Importance of Chemical Formulas

Chemical formulas provide a concise and standardized way to represent the composition of chemical compounds. By using symbols and numbers, they convey vital information about the elements and their proportions within a compound. Understanding chemical formulas is crucial for scientists and chemists as they serve as the language of chemistry.

The Basics: Chemical Symbols and Elements

Chemical symbols are shorthand representations of elements, consisting of one or two letters. These symbols are derived from the element's name, often using the first letter or a combination of letters from its name. For example, H represents hydrogen, O represents oxygen, and Na represents sodium.

Subscripts and Coefficients

Subscripts are used in chemical formulas to indicate the number of atoms of each element present in a compound. They are written as small numbers to the right of the element's symbol. Coefficients, on the other hand, represent the number of molecules or formula units in a chemical equation. They are written as large numbers in front of the chemical formula.

Ionic Compounds

Ionic compounds are formed through the transfer of electrons between atoms, resulting in the formation of ions. These compounds consist of positively charged cations and negatively charged anions. The chemical formulas of ionic compounds reflect the balance of charges between these ions.

Writing Ionic Formulas

When writing the formula for an ionic compound, the charges of the ions must be balanced. The crisscross method is commonly used to determine the subscripts of each ion in the compound. The positive and negative charges are swapped and used as subscripts for the opposite ion. The resulting formula represents the simplest ratio of ions in the compound.

Common Ionic Compounds

There are several common ionic compounds that you should be familiar with. These include sodium chloride (NaCl), magnesium oxide (MgO), and calcium carbonate (CaCO3). Each of these compounds has a unique chemical formula that reflects the arrangement of ions within them.

Covalent Compounds

Unlike ionic compounds, covalent compounds are formed through the sharing of electrons between atoms. These compounds consist of molecules, which are groups of atoms held together by covalent bonds. The chemical formulas of covalent compounds represent the composition of these molecules.

Naming Covalent Compounds

Covalent compounds are named using a system of prefixes that indicate the number of each element in the molecule. The first element in the formula is named using its full name, while the second element is modified to end in "-ide." For example, carbon dioxide (CO2) and dinitrogen monoxide (N2O) are both covalent compounds with unique chemical formulas.

Acids and Bases

Acids and bases are another important category of compounds. Acids release hydrogen ions (H+) when dissolved in water, while bases release hydroxide ions (OH-). The chemical formulas of acids often include hydrogen as the first element, followed by nonmetallic elements and the suffix "-ic" or "-ous" to indicate the acid's strength.

Common Acids and Bases

Some common acids include hydrochloric acid (HCl), sulfuric acid (H2SO4), and nitric acid (HNO3). On the other hand, common bases include sodium hydroxide (NaOH), potassium hydroxide (KOH), and calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2).

Writing Chemical Equations

Chemical equations provide a concise representation of chemical reactions, showing the reactants and products involved. The formulas of the reactants are written on the left side of the equation, separated by a plus sign (+), while the formulas of the products are written on the right side. Coefficients are used to balance the equation and ensure the conservation of mass.

Balancing Chemical Equations

Balancing chemical equations requires adjusting the coefficients of the reactants and products to ensure that the number of atoms on both sides of the equation is equal. This is achieved by adding coefficients in front of the formulas as necessary, while keeping the subscripts unchanged. The Law of Conservation of Mass guides this process.


Stoichiometry is the study of the quantitative relationships between reactants and products in a chemical reaction. It involves calculations based on the balanced chemical equation to determine the amount of one substance that is required or produced in relation to another. Stoichiometry is vital in laboratory settings and industrial processes.

Limiting Reactants

In a chemical reaction, the limiting reactant is the substance that is completely consumed, limiting the amount of product that can be formed. To determine the limiting reactant, stoichiometry calculations are performed using the amounts of each reactant and their molar ratios. The reactant that produces the smallest amount of product is the limiting reactant.

Empirical and Molecular Formulas

Empirical formulas represent the simplest whole-number ratio of the elements in a compound, while molecular formulas provide the actual number of atoms of each element in the compound. Empirical formulas can be determined from experimental data, while molecular formulas are determined using additional information, such as the compound's molar mass.

Review Questions

To solidify your understanding of the concepts covered in Chapter 7, here are a few review questions:

  1. What is the difference between an ionic compound and a covalent compound?
  2. How are chemical formulas for ionic compounds determined?
  3. What are some common acids and bases?
  4. How do you balance a chemical equation?
  5. What is the limiting reactant in a chemical reaction?
  6. What is the difference between empirical and molecular formulas?


Chapter 7 on Chemical Formulas and Chemical Compounds has provided us with a wealth of knowledge about the composition and nomenclature of chemical compounds. By understanding chemical formulas, we can decipher the language of chemistry and gain insights into the properties and behavior of substances. Reviewing and mastering these concepts will undoubtedly strengthen your foundation in chemistry, paving the way for further exploration and discovery.