65 Chapter 21 Ap Euro

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Welcome to Chapter 21 of AP European History! In this chapter, we will delve into the political, economic, and social changes that took place in Europe during the 19th century. This period, often referred to as the "Age of Revolution," witnessed significant transformations that shaped the modern world as we know it today. From the rise of industrialization to the emergence of new political ideologies, Chapter 21 offers a comprehensive overview of the key events and ideas that shaped Europe during this time. So, let's embark on this journey and explore the intricacies of Chapter 21 AP Euro!

The Industrial Revolution

The Origins of the Industrial Revolution

Before we dive into the chapter, it's essential to understand the origins of the Industrial Revolution. The Industrial Revolution, which began in Britain in the late 18th century, marked a shift from agrarian societies to industrialized ones. This transformation was fueled by technological advancements, such as the invention of the steam engine and the mechanization of textile production.

The Impact of Industrialization on European Society

Industrialization brought about significant changes in European society. It led to the urbanization of previously rural areas, as people flocked to cities in search of employment opportunities. This mass migration resulted in overcrowding, poor living conditions, and the emergence of slums. Additionally, the working class faced harsh working conditions and long hours, which sparked social unrest and the rise of labor movements.

The Rise of Nationalism

The Concept of Nationalism

Nationalism, a key theme in Chapter 21, refers to the belief in the importance of a shared cultural, linguistic, or historical heritage among a group of people. This ideology became increasingly influential in the 19th century, as people began to identify themselves primarily as members of a nation rather than a particular region or social class.

Nationalism and the Unification of Italy

One of the significant developments influenced by nationalism was the unification of Italy. Prior to the 19th century, Italy was a patchwork of independent states and foreign-controlled territories. However, the rise of nationalism paved the way for Italian unification, led by figures such as Giuseppe Garibaldi and Count Camillo di Cavour.

Nationalism and the Unification of Germany

In a similar vein, nationalism played a pivotal role in the unification of Germany. Under the leadership of Otto von Bismarck, the various German states were unified into a single nation-state, the German Empire. This process was characterized by military victories, diplomatic maneuvering, and the support of the German people, who yearned for a united Germany.

The Spread of Liberalism and Conservatism

The Ideals of Liberalism

Another key aspect of Chapter 21 is the spread of liberalism and conservatism. Liberalism, an ideology that emphasizes individual liberties, limited government intervention, and free-market capitalism, gained traction during the 19th century. Liberal thinkers such as John Stuart Mill and Adam Smith advocated for political and economic freedoms.

The Rise of Conservatism

On the other hand, conservatism emerged as a response to the radical changes brought about by the French Revolution and the Industrial Revolution. Conservatives sought to preserve traditional institutions, social hierarchies, and the monarchy. Figures like Edmund Burke and Metternich championed conservative ideals and opposed revolutionary movements.

The Revolutions of 1848

The Causes of the Revolutions

The Revolutions of 1848, also known as the "Springtime of Nations," were a series of uprisings that swept across Europe. These revolutions were fueled by a combination of social, political, and economic factors, including rising discontent among the working class, demands for political reforms, and calls for national self-determination.

The Outcomes of the Revolutions

Although the revolutions of 1848 initially held the promise of widespread change, they ultimately failed to achieve their goals. The conservative forces managed to suppress many of these uprisings, and the old order was largely restored. However, the revolutions did leave a lasting impact by inspiring future generations and laying the groundwork for future political developments.

The Rise of Socialism

The Emergence of Socialism

Chapter 21 also explores the rise of socialism as a response to the social and economic inequalities brought about by industrialization. Socialism, as advocated by thinkers like Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, called for the collective ownership of means of production and the establishment of a classless society.

Socialism and the Labor Movement

The rise of socialism went hand in hand with the labor movement. Workers, facing exploitative conditions and meager wages, organized labor unions and engaged in strikes to demand better working conditions and rights. The labor movement played a crucial role in advocating for workers' rights and influencing subsequent labor legislation.


Chapter 21 of AP European History encapsulates the major political, economic, and social transformations that occurred in Europe during the 19th century. From the Industrial Revolution to the rise of nationalism, liberalism, conservatism, and socialism, this chapter offers a comprehensive understanding of the forces that shaped European history during this period. By studying Chapter 21, students gain insights into the complexities of Europe's past and the ideologies and movements that continue to influence the world today.